U.S.  P O L I T I C A L  T H O U G H T

SPRING 1999  (POL / HIS 460)
LIVINGSTONE COLLEGE
SALISBURY, NC 28144


INSTRUCTOR: Prof. Robert Williams CLASS ROOM: Tubman Bldg., Rm. 205
CLASS TIMES: T / Th: 4–5:20 pm

OFFICE: Tubman Bldg., Rm. 202 TELEPHONE: 704.638.5614
OFFICE HOURS: Mon.,Fri.: 10–12 noon E-MAIL: Robert Williams
4net Mon.–Fri.: 1–3 pm


WEB   SITES

Prof. Williams' homepage


Livingstone College
COURSE TABLE OF CONTENTS   [toc]
prerequisites textbook description
requirements outline policies
bibliography internet links




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There are no prerequisites for this course—nothing except
an abiding desire to critically interrogate the texts.


COURSE  PREREQUISITES
The textbook, American Political Thought, 4th Ed. (edited by Kenneth Dolbeare and published by Chatham House, 1998), is available at the College's student bookstore.


REQUIRED  TEXTBOOK
Attempting to understand the complex politics of the United States requires a thorough grasp of the diverse array of ideas and values that form the core of our political activities. To pursue such ends will necessitate that we read deeply from a range of primary source materials documenting political and social thinking from the earliest Colonial days to the last years of the 20th Century.

A particular focus in this course will be our attempt to understand the concepts of liberty and equality—with specific attention being paid to how they have been defined in the tears and blood of political struggles over the course of U.S. history. Some have argued that the relationship between liberty and equality lies at the heart of democracy in America, and it is a tension-ridden one at that. For example, the economic liberty to gain, own, and control wealth has often been pitted against the full political equality embodied in various basic rights, such as suffrage and the freedom of expression. The "propertied few" often have been able to exercise certain privileges denied to those without wealth. It will be an exciting semester.


COURSE  DESCRIPTION
As this is a Senior-level course, students will evaluated in terms of those activities that promote the skills necessary for graduate work: specifically, in-class presentations and writing. Accordingly, each student will lead—or facilitate—class discussion on two of the topics to be addressed in this course. In addition, each student will elaborate on his/her presentation by writing a 8-to-10 page essay on each of the topics. The paper is to be submitted no later than 4 weeks after the presentation, or by the end of the semester, whichever is earliest.

Also, attendance and class participation in discussions will be factored into the student's final grade.

Please note that I do not foreclose the possibility of unannounced, in-class quizzes—especially in those instances where discussion lags or the assigned readings have not been completed on the scheduled day.

The following table specifies the course requirements and the respective weight that each has for the studentís final course grade:
Facilitating Class Discussions
  (two required)
45 %
Essays (two required) 45 %
Attendance and Class Participation 10 %

The following standards will be used to assess each presentation. The criteria used to assess the presentation's content will weigh more heavily than those used to evaluate its format.
  1. Criteria to Assess the Content of the Presentation
    1. Does the presentation adequately and fully address the topics suggested in the course outline?
    2. Were new issues and insights raised?
  2. Criteria to Assess the Format of the Presentation
    1. Does the student communicate the ideas clearly via appropriate diction, tone, and emphasis?
    2. Does the student communicate the ideas effectively and use appropriate examples?
    3. Does the student encourage and sustain discussion among the other students?
COURSE  REQUIREMENTS



We will proceed through the following outline of required readings in the order listed. Adjustments to particular selections (e.g., assigned pages) or to the scheduled day for discussion of a text may be made as appropriate. Please note that the discussions of some of the readings may span more than one class session.

The selections and works—with the obvious exception of any handouts—will be found in the required textbook. Handouts will be distributed in advance by the professor.

COURSE  OUTLINE
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SESSION REQUIRED READINGS ISSUES TO ADDRESS
Jan. 14 ————— Welcome to the Course
• Discussion of syllabus
• Course requirements
2nd week ————— Class Presentations & Discussions
• Choosing the topics for student presentations
• Facilitating a class discussion
————— Introduction to Theory
• Why study U.S. political theory?
• How to study the texts?
3rd week Read editor's introductions to the sections of the textbook Trajectories
• Trends in U.S. political history with special reference to political and social thought
4th week • Mayflower Compact (1620), Handout
• John Winthrop, "The Little Speech" (1639), pp. 22-25
• John Wise, "Democracy Is Founded in Scripture" (1717), pp. 26-31
The Puritan Foundations of the
Colonial Era

• What is the role of a covenant (or compact) in the founding of a political community?
• Who is included in such a covenant?
• Within the framework of a covenant, what rights might an individual possess within the community?
• How are the concepts of liberty and equality defined implicitly or explicitly in the texts?
• Is Winthrop's use of liberty similar to Wise's use of the term?
• Do the Puritan's ideas speak to us in the late-20th Century?
• Samuel Adams "Rights of the Colonists" (1772), pp. 44-48.
• Thomas Paine, "Common Sense" (1776), pp. 49-55
• Jefferson, "Declaration of Independence" (1776), pp. 62-64
The Reasons for Revolution (mid-1770s)
• What justifications for revolution were given?
• Did the King of England break some sort of "contract/compact" with the American colonies?
• Under what conditions—political, economic, moral, philosophical—can revolution be justified?
• What philosophical principles were invoked?
• What makes "unalienable rights" so inviolable?
• Is such a grounding of rights similar to the notion of a covenant as used by the Puritans?
• If the Americans of today considered that the government did not represent them, would similar reasons for revolution as were offered in the 1770s be useful in arguing for major political changes?
5th week • "Declaration of Independence," pp. 62-64
• "U.S. Constitution," pp. 86-95
• Prince Hall petition (1777), Handout
• Abigail Adams, "Letter to John Adams" (1776); pp. 82-83
The Declaration of Independence and
the U.S. Constitution

• What is the relationship between unalienable rights and popular sovereignty (a government based on the consent of the governed)? In an election can the winners of a political party by majority vote take away the rights of those supporting the losing candidate?
• Are the "unalienable rights" of the Declaration of Independence found in the Constitution?
• Who possesses those "unalienable rights?"
• What types of liberty (political/economic) and equality (political/economic) are fostered by "unalienable rights?"
• Was the Declaration of Independence written for Prince Hall? for Abigail Adams?
• "Articles of Confederation," pp. 65-70
• "U.S. Constitution," pp. 86-95
The Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution
• What is the relationship between the national and subnational governments? Where do/es the power(s) lie?
• How is liberty defined in political and/or economic terms?
• How is equality defined in political and/or economic terms?
• The Articles and the Constitution each presuppose some sort of political-economic system. That is, certain interests have a better chance of "being heard" (and being acted upon) over others. Which political-economic interests are (or seem to be) reflected in the Articles and in the Constitution?
6th week • "Federalist No. 10" (James Madison), pp. 98-103
• "Federalist No. 48" (James Madison), pp. 107-110.
• "Federalist No. 51" (James Madison), pp. 110-113
• "Federalist No. 23" (Alexander Hamilton), pp. 121-124
Battles over the Ratification of
the Constitution (1787-1788):
The Federalists

• What does democracy mean to the founders?
• Why were the framers of the Constitution concerned about the "common man?"
• How can the "mischiefs of faction" be controlled?
• How can the powers of a despotic government or its various parts be controlled?
• What purposes are to be served by the
creation of a "federal government?"
• What do liberty and equality mean to the Federalists?
• "Dissent of the Pennsylvania Minority" (1787), pp. 130-136
• Richard Henry Lee, "Letters IV and V" (1787), pp. 140-143
Battles over the Ratification of the Constitution (1787-1788):
The Anti-Federalists

• Why were the anti-federalists concerned about the powers of a national government?
• What effects might a powerful national government have on the states?
• Why did the Anti-Federalists push for a Bill of Rights to be added to the Constitution?
• What do liberty and equality mean to the Anti-Federalists?
• Can either the Federalist or anti-Federalist positions lay claim to being more democratic than the other camp? Why or why not?
7th week Jefferson:
• "Letter to Madison" (1787), pp. 172-174
• "Letter to John Adams" (1816), pp. 175-178
• "Letter to Dupont de Nemours" (1816), pp.178-179
• "Letter to Kercheval" (1816), pp. 181-185

Hamilton:
• "Report on Credit" (1790), pp. 146-151
• "Report on Manufactures" (1791), pp. 154-158
Hamilton and Jefferson: Tensions over Political Order and Democracy
• What type of social, political, and economic world does each envision in his respective writings?
• What types of political and economic groups would be more supportive of each author's position?
• What is the role of government, according to each thinker?
• What is the basis of government legitimacy for each author?
• How strong must the national government be in order to serve its roles, according to each author?
• Henry David Thoreau, "Civil Disobedience," (1848), pp. 222-235
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton, "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" (1848), pp. 244-248
• Frederick Douglass, "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?" (1852), Handout
• Abraham Lincoln, "Speech on the Dred Scott Decision" (1857), pp. 281-284
Democracy and the Citizens
• In the first few decades of the new country, who counts as an American citizen?
• According to each author, who should be a
citizen?
• What are the moral, philosophical, or other reasons that justify broadening the definition of who should be considered a citizen?
• What obligations must each citizen follow?
• What individual consequences accrue to the human being who is deemed a citizen?
Midterms Week During the Midterm Exam Period (as officially set by the Dean's Office) an evaluation of the texts and selections will be administered.
9th week • George Fitzhugh, "Cannibals All!" (1857), pp. 272-280
• Frederick Douglass, "Speech at the Anti-Slavery Association" (1848), pp. 249-252
• Frederick Douglass, "The Various Phases of Anti-Slavery" (1855), pp. 252-255
Slavery in America
• How does Fitzhugh justify slavery?
• How does Douglass criticize the institution of slavery?
• In what ways does each author address (or not) the concepts of liberty and equality?
10th week • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, "Statement" (1869), pp. 312-313
• Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, "Debates at Meetings of the Equal Rights Association" (1869), pp. 313-315
• Susan B. Anthony, "Statement at the Close of Her Trial" (1873), pp. 315-317
Basic Rights for Women and African Americans (post-Civil War era)
• How do the women suffrage and African American suffrage each justify their respective positions?
• Historically, why were the women suffrage and African American suffrage movements often viewed as mutually exclusive? Were there philosophical/moral reasons for this schism? Were there practical political reasons for the schism?
• William Graham Sumner, "What Social Classes Owe to Each Other" (1884), pp. 321-335
• Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward selection (1889), pp. 338-346
Some Reactions to the Growing Industrialization of America
(late-19th Century)

• For each author, who (or which grouping) should be the major force shaping the society as a whole?
• How does each author characterize implicitly or explicitly the relationship between liberty and equality? Are the two concepts in a harmonious relationship, or do tensions exist?
• How would each view the argument that we must assist our less fortunate citizens?
• How is the increase in the concentration of businesses and property into fewer hands evaluated by each author?
• What are the moral and economic consequences of a for-profit, capitalist economic system?
11th week • Populism, "The Ocala Demands" (1890) and the Populist Party Platform (1892), pp. 347-351
• Henry Demarest Lloyd, "Revolution: The Evolution of Socialism" (1894), pp. 352-358
• Eugene V. Debs, "Revolutionary Unionism" (1905), pp. 398-401
• Emma Goldman, "Anarchism: What it Really Stands For" (1907), pp. 368-376
More Reactions to America's Growing Industrialization (1890s-1910s)
• Each work criticizes the consequences of America's economic growth by capitalist means. How are the critiques similar and how are the critiques different?
• How does each work implicitly or explicitly characterize the relationship between liberty and equality? Are the two concepts in a harmonious relationship, or do tensions exist?
• Why are concentrations of wealth and power under a capitalist economy not viewed as socially beneficial?
• What solutions are offered to correct the problems that each work identifies?
12th week • Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life selections (1909), pp. 412-426
• Woodrow Wilson, "The Meaning of Democracy" (1912), pp. 441-446
• Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Commonwealth Club Address" (1932), pp. 456-463
The Growth of the Positive, or Interventionist, State
(first half of 20th Century)

• What justifications are used by the authors to support the notion that the uneven accumulation of wealth produces social ills?
• What roles are government—the state—to serve in politics and in the economy?
• Is a positive/interventionist state compatible with individual responsibility? How might Sumner respond?
• Do these works address the criticisms leveled by, for example, Emma Goldman or Eugene Debs?
13th week • W.E.B. Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk selection (1903), pp. 382-394
• Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from the Birmingham City Jail" (April 1963), pp. 482-489
• Martin Luther King, Jr., "Address at the March on Washington" (August 1963), Handout
• Glenn C. Loury, "Achieving the 'Dream'" (1990), pp. 538- 548
The Long 20th Century of American Race Relations
• Have the problems identified by Du Bois at the beginning of the 20th Century been rectified at its end?
• Might Du Bois agree with Loury that a primary challenge facing Black Americans nowadays is to achieve individual responsibility? Why or why not?
• How might King respond to Loury's criticisms of the Civil Rights "Establishment?"
• Is Loury's use of liberty and equality similar to King's?
Finals Week During the Final Exam Period (as officially set by the Dean's Office) an evaluation of the texts and selections will be administered.



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The following texts are useful supplemental sources for U.S. political thought.

PRIMARY SOURCES
de Crèvecoeur, Hector St. John. 1963 [1782]. Letters from an American Farmer and Sketches of Eighteenth-Century America. NY: Signet Classics.

de Tocqueville, Alexis. 1945 [1848]. Democracy in America, Two Vols. Transl. by Henry Reeve and by Francis Bowen. Ed. by Phillips Bradley. NY: Vintage Books.

Ketcham, Ralph (ed.). 1986. The Anti-Federalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention Debates. NY: Penguin, Mentor Books.

Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton, & John Jay. 1987 [1787]. The Federalist Papers. Ed. by Isaac Kramnick. NY: Penguin Books.

Solberg, Winton U. (ed.). 1990. The Constitutional Convention and the Formation of the Union, 2nd Edition. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.


ANTHOLOGIES
Davis, Sue (ed.). 1996. American Political Thought: Four Hundred Years of Ideas and Ideologies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hollinger, David A. & Charles Capper (eds.). 1997. The American Intellectual Tradition, A Sourcebook, Two Vols., Third Edition. NY: Oxford University Press.

Prewitt, Jeffrey L. (ed.). 1996. The Dilemma of American Political Thought. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sargent, Lyman Tower (ed.). 1997. Political Thought in the United States: A Documentary History. NY: New York University Press.


SECONDARY SOURCES
Agresto, John (ed.). 1983. Liberty and Equality Under the Constitution. Washington, DC: American Historical Association.

Bauman, Zygmunt. 1988. Freedom. Series: Concepts in Social Thought. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Beard, Charles. 1986 [1913]. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. NY: Free Press.

Becker, Carl. 1958 [1942]. The Declaration of Independence. NY: Random House.

Branch, Taylor. 1988. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963. NY: Touchstone.

Brant, Irving. 1965. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. NY: Mentor Books.

Carroll, Peter N. & David W. Noble. 1988. The Free and the Unfree: A New History of the United States, 2nd Edition. NY: Penguin Books.

Conant, Michael. 1991. The Constitution and the Economy: Objective Theory and Critical Commentary. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Davis, Angela. 1983. Women, Race & Class. NY: Vintage Books.

Ely, James W. 1992. The Guardian of Every Other Right: A Constitutional History of Property Rights. NY: Oxford University Press.

Freeden, Michael. 1991. Rights. Series: Concepts in Social Thought. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hofstadter, Richard. 1989 [1948]. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. NY: Vintage Books.

Gitlin, Todd. 1987. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. NY: Bantam Books.

Goldwin, Robert & William Schambra (eds.). 1982. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution? Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.

Goldwin, Robert & William Schambra (eds.). 1982. How Democratic Is the Constitution? Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.

Jameson, J. Franklin. 1973 [1926]. The American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lutz, Donald S. 1992. A Preface to American Political Theory. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Marone, James. 1990. The Democratic Wish: Popular Participation and the Limits of American Government. NY: Basic Books.

McDonald, Forrest. Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

McLennan Gregor. 1995. Pluralism. Series: Concepts in Social Thought. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Miller, James. 1987. "Democracy is in the Streets:" From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. NY: Touchstone Books.

Nieman, Donald G. 1991. Promises to Keep: African-Americans and the Constitutional Order, 1776 to the Present. NY: Oxford University Press.

Smith, David G. 1965. The Convention and the Constitution: The Political Ideas of the Founding Fathers. NY: St. Martin's Press.

Smith, James Morton (ed.). 1971. The Constitution. NY: Harper & Row.

St. John, Jeffrey. 1990. A Child of Fortune. Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books.

St. John, Jeffrey. 1992. Forge of Union, Anvil of Liberty. Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books.

Zinn, Howard. 1995. A People's History of the United States, 1492-Present, Revised Ed. NY: Harper Perennial.

Zinn, Howard. 1991. Declarations of Independence: Cross-Examining American Ideology. NY: Harper Perennial.

COURSE  BIBLIOGRAPHY



































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This section lists only a few of an ever-growing number of Internet sites. The links are annotated to suggest some of the data, sources, and information that each site contains. For a set of non-annotated links (but one useful nonetheless), visit the professor's links page to political science sites in general or to American political thought sites in particular.

African American Culture
(http://afroamculture.miningco.com/mbody.htm)
R. Jeneen Jones is the host for this site. The site is part of the the Mining Company, a commercial venture that peppers the web pages with advertising. It is a links-intensive site that allows you to jump to many diverse topics related to African-American experiences: arts, culture, fashion, religion, employment, education, and organizations—to name a few. It also includes a chat room. It is worth investigating, especially for contemporary topics and issues.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

The African-American Mosaic Exhibition
(http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/african/intro.html)
The U.S. Library of Congress has constructed a content-based site that is subtitled as a "Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture." It features selections from the Library's extensive African-American collections, which range from books and photographs to music and film. The quality of the site's content is excellent. The mixed text and graphics may be slow depending on Internet traffic and modem speed.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

American Independence—Internet
Modern History Sourcebook

(http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook12.html)
Authored by History Professor Paul Halsall, this is a personal site at Fordham University. It links us to numerous primary sources on numerous topics on American history and thought. The pages are arranged thematically (American independence, civil war, 19th century, society, the cold war, etc.), which are set amidst other topics of world history in the navigation bar. This is an excellent and comprehensive site.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

American Memory: Historical Collections
for the National Digital Library

(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ammemhome.html)
The U.S. Library of Congress sponsors this content-rich site. The site is oriented to providing selections of those items of interest to American history, society, culture, and politics that are housed in the Library's collections. It covers a wide spectrum of topics related to the U.S.A., with pictures, time lines, and primary sources/texts. The scope is vast, but the content relates only to the material housed in its archives. One generally finds text on the introductory pages, but the web pages that access the graphic facsimiles of documents can be slow to load. This is an interesting site for educational purposes.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999

American Political Science Association
(http://www.apsanet.org/)
This is the site of the professional organization for political scientists in the U.S.A., the American Political Science Association. It provides links to various resources (related organizations, funding, and the APSA's Organized Sections), and to content (news, announcements, available jobs, and official publications) as it pertains to the profession. Timely information can be located here.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999

American Political Thought on the Web
(http://www.unc.edu/~hsingerl/welcome.html)
University of North Carolina professor Hugh Singerline has authored this personal web page. It contains many links to various resources arranged in useful ways (e.g., the American Dream, the American civil war, liberty/freedom, race/ethnicity, suffrage, religion, and pluralism). It also contains links to e-texts for primary and U.S. government sources that are available online. This is a useful site to bookmark.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

American Studies Web
(http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/asw/)
The American Studies Association sponsors this site, which is part of the Crossroads Project. The web page can be likened to a "portal site" (although non-commercial) that links us to sources on a number of themes: it ranges from history, politics, literature to specific topics on African Americans, Latino and Chicano studies to sexuality, architecture, and American cities and regions. It is to be highly recommended.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Books On-Line
(http://www.cs.cmu.edu/books.html)
This is an excellent, links-intensive personal page of John Mark Ockerbloom, and hosted at Carnegie Mellon University. It covers a wide range of books, periodicals, documents, and primary sources that are available online. Turn to this site for those hard-to-locate e-texts in the areas of literature, culture, and political and social philosophy.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

DOUGLASS Archives of American Public Address
(http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/index.html)
This site provides primary sources to assist not only general scholarship, but also Northwestern University's courses in American rhetorical history. The chief subjects/topics covered are public addresses and orations by Americans over the past 300 years, including Frederick Douglass (the site's namesake), John Adams, Hilary Rodham Clinton, Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, and so forth. The site offers interesting materials.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Information Please Almanac
(http://www.infoplease.com/)
This is a content-intensive commercial site. It provides information and data on many topics pertaining to the U.S.A. and to the rest of the world, including statistics on demographics, history, culture, geography, recent events, biographies, business, sports, etc. It offers quick access to (some of) the "facts."
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
(http://www.constitution.org/liberlib.htm)
The site is sponsored by The Constitution Society, which is "a private non-profit organization dedicated to research and public education on the principles of constitutional republican government." Available at the site are varied political treatises and primary sources, from the Magna Carta and Plato to American and European thinkers.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Native American Resources on the Internet
(http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources/)
Karen M. Strom authors this personal web site. She provides a collection of links covering a comprehensive range of topics pertaining to Native Americans (e.g., arts, literature, culture, history, government relations, organizations, etc.). The links jump to pertinent sites and documents. This is a good starting point for Internet research on Native Americans.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Poly-Cy -- Internet Resources for Political Science
(http://www.polsci.wvu.edu/polycy/)
The Department of Political Science at West Virginia University has crafted an extraordinarily useful site. It offers a comprehensive site for most, if not all, areas of political science, covering the fields of political inquiry, data sources (government and organizational), personal and departmental homepages, professional news, and course syllabi. This is an excellent beginning point for any Internet-based research into that vast discipline known as political science.
Date reviewed: March 7, 1999.

Project Gutenberg
(http://www.promo.net/pg/list.html)
Project Gutenberg was begun by one Michael S. Hart; now it is assisted by volunteer editors who turn public-domain documents into a format that is accessible online. The topics span many fields of literature, culture, and politics. The site provides links to down-loadable files of the many texts. Bookmark this web site as soon as possible.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

Searching the Secondary Literature in Political Theory
(http://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rulib/ socsci/polsci/sslipt.html)
The Rutgers University Libraries have created an extensive listing of a vast amount of secondary material useful for political inquiry, including indexes of printed material, including encyclopedias, news sources, and other bibliographic references. It is not actually a links site, and the available links are restricted to RUL users only. Yet the information contained are applicable to most researchers (such as Library of Congress call numbers, book titles, etc.). This site offers a very good place to begin one's library-based research.
Date reviewed: March 7, 1999.

The U.S. Constitution (Annotated)
(http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/
constitution/toc.html)
The U.S. Senate sponsors this content-based web page. The site gives the text of the U.S. Constitution and then provides annotations listing recent, pertinent Supreme Court cases and other references to the particular sections. It is a useful reference tool.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

U.S. Historical Documents
(http://www.law.ou.edu/ushist.html)
The University of Oklahoma Law Center sponsors this site It offers links to various primary sources on historical, political, and social topics, ranging from America's pre-colonial and colonial times to our contemporary era. The selections are excellent.
Date reviewed: March 6, 1999.

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Overall webpage last updated: January 15, 1999


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